Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a topic that receives a lot of attention in the media and in those ever popular television commercials. However, it is a very sensitive topic for most men to discuss, even with their partners.
Our physicians at Urology Health Solutions are not only uniquely trained to evaluate and manage ED, but they are understanding and sensitive about listening and talking about this condition.
Causes of ED
ED can be linked to:
- Hypertension /high blood pressure
- Hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol
- Low testosterone/hypogonadism
- Pelvic surgery, such as prostatectomy or rectal surgery
Erectile Dysfunction Solutions
Your doctor may recommend treating your ED with:
- Lifestyle modifications, such as reductions in stress or talking to a professional
- Oral medications
- Penile injection therapy
- Intrauretheral suppository therapy
- Vacuum erection device
- Penile implant
Erectile Dysfunction: Penile Implant
A penile implant is the most effective and satisfactory treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction. These devices are either malleable (bendable) or inflatable. The simplest type of prosthesis consists of a pair of malleable rods surgically implanted within the erection chambers of the penis. With this type of implant the penis is always semi-rigid and merely needs to be lifted or adjusted into the erect position to initiate sex. Today, many men choose a hydraulic, inflatable prosthesis, which allows a man to have an erection whenever he chooses and is much easier to conceal. It is also more natural.
A penile implant is usually indicated when there is a clear medical cause for ED and when the problem is unlikely to resolve or improve naturally or if other medical treatments have failed or are unsatisfactory. Sometimes a penile prosthesis is implanted during surgery to reconstruct the penis when scarring has caused erections to curve (Peyronie’s disease).
How Does The Penile Implant Work?
The inflatable penile prosthesis consists of two attached cylinders, a reservoir, and a pump which are placed surgically in the body. The two cylinders are inserted in the penis and connected by tubing to a separate reservoir of fluid. The reservoir is implanted under the groin muscles. A pump is also connected to the system and sits under the loose skin of the scrotal sac, between the testicles.
This penile prosthesis is referred to as a 3-piece inflatable penile prosthesis, due to the three different components. A two-piece inflatable penile prosthesis consists of only two components: the attached cylinders and the combined reservoir and pump unit. Instead of the reservoir being placed behind the groin, it is combined with the pump into one housing unit that fits comfortably within the scrotum. The advantage of a two-piece prosthesis in that the surgery is shorter and less complicated and there are no device parts in the abdomen. The disadvantage of the 2-piece prosthesis is that the smaller reservoir may not result in adequate erections in some men.
To inflate the prosthesis, the man presses on the pump. The pump transfers fluid from the reservoir to the cylinders in the penis, inflating them and causing an erection. Pressing on a deflation valve at the base of the pump returns the fluid to the reservoir, deflating the penis and returning it to the normal flaccid state.
Is the Implant Noticeable?
While men who have had the prosthesis surgery can see the small surgical scar where the bottom of the penis meets the scrotal sac, other people probably will be unable to tell that a man has an inflatable penile prosthesis. Most men would not be embarrassed in a locker room or public restroom, for example.
What Is Sex Like With The Implant?
When the penis is inflated, the prosthesis makes the penis stiff and thick, similar to a natural erection. Most men rate the erection as shorter than their normal erection; however, newer models have cylinders that may increase the length, thickness, and stiffness of the penis.
A penile prosthesis does not change sensation on the skin of the penis or a man’s ability to reach orgasm. Ejaculation is not affected. Once a penile prosthesis is put in, however, it may destroy the natural erection reflex. Men usually cannot get an erection without inflating the implant. If the implant is removed, the man may never again have natural erections.
Anatomy of the Penis
The internal structure of the penis consists of two cylinder-shaped vascular tissue bodies (corpora cavernosa) that run throughout the penis; the urethra (tube for expelling urine and ejaculate); erectile tissue surrounding the urethra; two main arteries; and several veins and nerves. The longest part of the penis is the shaft, at the end of which is the head, or glands penis. The opening at the tip of the glands, which allows for urination and ejaculation, is the meatus.
Physiology of Erection
The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular systems. Neurotransmitters in the brain (e.g., epinephrine, acetylcholine, nitric oxide) are some of the chemicals that initiate it. Physical or psychological stimulation (arousal) causes nerves to send messages to the vascular system, which results in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissue and the corpora cavernosa, which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressure.
Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity, erectile tissue is enclosed by fibrous elastic sheathes (tunicae) that cinch to prevent blood from leaving the penis during erection. When stimulation ends, or following ejaculation, pressure in the penis decreases, blood is released, and the penis resumes its normal shape.